Author(s): Penna G, Amuchastegui S, Giarratana N, Daniel KC, Vulcano M,
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Abstract 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) is an immunomodulatory agent inducing dendritic cells (DCs) to become tolerogenic. To further understand its mechanisms of action, we have examined the effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on tolerogenic properties of blood myeloid (M-DCs) and plasmacytoid (P-DCs) human DC subsets. Exposure of M-DCs to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) up-regulated production of CCL22, a chemokine attracting regulatory T cells, whereas production of CCL17, the other CCR4 ligand, was reduced. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) also decreased IL-12p75 production by M-DCs, as expected, and inhibited CCR7 expression. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment markedly increased CD4(+) suppressor T cell activity while decreasing the capacity of M-DCs to induce Th1 cell development. Surprisingly, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) did not exert any discernible effect on tolerogenic properties of P-DCs, and even their high production of IFN-alpha was not modulated. In particular, the intrinsically high capacity of P-DCs to induce CD4(+) suppressor T cells was unaffected by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Both DC subsets expressed similar levels of the vitamin D receptor, and its ligation by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) similarly activated the primary response gene cyp24. Interestingly, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) inhibited NF-kappaB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in M-DCs but not P-DCs, suggesting a mechanism for the inability of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) to modulate tolerogenic properties in P-DCs.
This article was published in J Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology