Author(s): Veldhorst MA, Nieuwenhuizen AG, HochstenbachWaelen A, Westerterp KR, Engelen MP
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary protein plays a role in body weight regulation, partly due to its effects on satiety. The objective was to compare the effects of casein-, soy-, whey-, whey without glycomacropeptide (GMP)-, alpha-lactalbumin-, gelatin-, or gelatin with tryptophan (TRP)-protein breakfasts at two concentrations on subsequent satiety and energy intake (EI).
METHODS: Twenty-four healthy subjects (mean+/-SEM BMI: 24.8+/-0.5 kg/m(2); age: 25+/-2 years) received a breakfast; a custard with casein, soy, whey, whey-GMP, alpha-lactalbumin, gelatin, or gelatin+TRP as protein source with either 10/55/35 (normal) or 25/55/20 (high) En% protein/carbohydrate/fat in a randomized, single-blind design. At the precedingly determined time point for lunch, 180 min, subjects were offered an ad lib lunch. Appetite profile (Visual Analogue Scales, VAS) and EI were determined.
RESULTS: Both at the level of 10 and 25 En% from protein, EI at lunch was approximately 20% lower after an alpha-lactalbumin or gelatin (+TRP) breakfast (2.5+/-0.2 MJ) compared with after a casein, soy, or whey-GMP breakfast (3.2+/-0.3 MJ, p<0.05). Appetite ratings at 180 min differed 15-25 mm (approximately 40%, p<0.05) between types of protein. Differences in EI were a function of differences in appetite ratings (R(2)=0.4, p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Different proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, gelatin, gelatin+TRP) that are approximately 40% more satiating than other proteins (casein, soy, whey, whey-GMP) induce a related approximately 20% reduction of subsequent energy intake.