Author(s): Nakayama EE, Tanaka Y, Nagai Y, Iwamoto A, Shioda T
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: A valine to isoleucine substitution at position 64 of CCR2 (CCR2-64I) is associated with a delay in progression to AIDS in HIV-1-infected individuals. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of this allele. DESIGN: We analysed the effect of the 64I substitution on levels of expression of CCR2A and CCR2B, two CCR2 isoforms produced by alternative splicing. METHODS: Sendai virus vector was used to express CCR2 molecules. RESULTS: While CCR2B trafficked well to the cell surface, CCR2A, which differs from CCR2B only by the sequence of its C-terminal cytoplasmic tail, was detected predominantly in the cytoplasm. The level of expression of CCR2A-64I was significantly higher than that of CCR2A without the substitution. On the other hand, the 64I substitution did not affect levels of CCR2B expression. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that the 64I substitution increased the half-life of CCR2A in cells. When co-expressed with CCR5, CCR2A-64I interfered more severely with cell surface expression of CCR5 than did wild-type CCR2A. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation experiments showed that CCR2A co-precipitated with an immature form of CCR5. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that CCR2A binds to CCR5 in the cytoplasm and down-modulates its surface expression. We propose that the increased ability of CCR2A-64I to down-modulate CCR5 expression might be a possible cause of a delay in HIV-1 disease progression in patients with this allele.
This article was published in AIDS
and referenced in International Journal of Inflammation, Cancer and Integrative Therapy