alexa A comprehensive review of autoantibodies in primary Sjögren's syndrome: clinical phenotypes and regulatory mechanisms.



Author(s): Kyriakidis NC, Kapsogeorgou EK, Tzioufas AG

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Abstract Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by periepithelial lymphocytic infiltrates in affected tissues and the production of plethora of autoantibodies. Among them autoimmune responses against Ro/SSA and La/SSB are of major importance since their detection is routinely used for disease diagnosis and clinical characterization. Although the exact mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis are not fully understood, the important role of salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC) in the initiation and development of the local immune responses is well-established. SGECs are also capable to mediate the exposure of the Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantigens to the immune system by elevated apoptosis and autoantigen release in apoptotic bodies and/or by the secretion of autoantigen-containing exosomes. The expression of these autoantigens in epithelial cells appears to be tightly regulated. Up-to-date, signaling of certain innate immunity receptors, such as TLR3, appear to be implicated in the regulation of Ro/SSA and La/SSB expression by SGECs, whereas the deregulated expression of certain miRNAs that are predicted to target them in SS patients suggests a regulatory feedback at the post-transcriptional level. In the periphery, the humoral autoimmune responses are further regulated by the development of an active network of idiotypic-antiidiotypic antibodies. The plethora of mechanisms suggests that autoimmune humoral responses in SS are tightly regulated. In this review, the major humoral autoimmune responses, recent advances on the role of epithelial cells in their development, as well as possible regulatory mechanisms will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This article was published in J Autoimmun and referenced in Dentistry

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