Author(s): Kenyon EM, Hughes MF
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Abstract Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) has been used as a herbicide (cacodylic acid) and is the major metabolite formed after exposure to tri- (arsenite) or pentavalent (arsenate) inorganic arsenic (iAs) via ingestion or inhalation in both humans and rodents. Once viewed simply as a detoxification product of iAs, evidence has accumulated in recent years indicating that DMA itself has unique toxic properties. DMA induces an organ-specific lesion--single strand breaks in DNA--in the lungs of both mice and rats and in human lung cells in vitro. Mechanistic studies have suggested that this damage is due mainly to the peroxyl radical of DMA and production of active oxygen species by pulmonary tissues. Multi-organ initiation-promotion studies have demonstrated that DMA acts as a promotor of urinary bladder, kidney, liver and thyroid gland cancers in rats and as a promotor of lung tumors in mice. Lifetime exposure to DMA in diet or drinking water also causes a dose-dependent increase in urinary bladder tumors in rats, indicating that DMA is a complete carcinogen. These data collectively suggest that DMA plays a role in the carcinogenesis of inorganic arsenic.
This article was published in Toxicology
and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta