Author(s): Rundberget T, Gustad E, Samdal IA, Sandvik M, Miles CO
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Abstract Passive sampling disks were developed based on the method of MacKenzie, L, Beuzenberg, V., Holland, P., McNabb, P., Selwood, A. [2004. Solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT): a new monitoring tool that simulates the biotoxin contamination of filter feeding bivalves. Toxicon 44, 901-918] and protocols were formulated for recovering toxins from the adsorbent resin via elution from small columns. The disks were used in field studies to monitor in situ toxin dynamics during mixed algal blooms at Flødevigen in Norway. Examples are given from time-integrated sampling using the disks followed by extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis for azaspiracids, okadaic acid analogues, pectenotoxins, yessotoxins and spirolides. Profiles of accumulated toxins in the disks and toxin profiles in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were compared with the relative abundance of toxin-producing algal species. Results obtained showed that passive sampling disks correlate with the toxin profiles in shellfish. The passive sampling disks were cheap to produce and convenient to use and, when combined with HPLC-MS or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis, provide detailed time-averaged information on the profile of lipophilic toxin analogues in the water. Passive sampling is therefore a useful tool for monitoring the exposure of shellfish to the toxigenic algae of concern in northern Europe.
This article was published in Toxicon
and referenced in Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry