alexa A crystalline compound (BM-ANF1) from the Indian toad (Bufo melanostictus, Schneider) skin extract, induced antiproliferation and apoptosis in leukemic and hepatoma cell line involving cell cycle proteins.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta

Author(s): Gomes A, Giri B, Kole L, Saha A, Debnath A,

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Abstract In our earlier communication, it was reported that Indian toad (Bufo melanostictus) skin extract (TSE) possesses antiproliferative and apoptogenic activity in U937 and K562 cells [Giri et al., 2006. Antiproliferative, cytotoxic and apoptogenic activity of Indian toad (Bufo melanostictus, Schneider) skin extract in U937 and K562 cells. Toxicon 48 (4), 388-400]. In the present study, a compound (BM-ANF1) has been isolated from the TSE by alumina gel column chromatography, crystallized and evaluated for its antiproliferative and apoptogenic activity in U937, K562 and HepG2 cells. BM-ANF1 produced dose-dependent inhibition of U937, K562 and HepG2 cell growth. The antiproliferative activity was reflected by the MTT assay and demonstrated by the reduced expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Flow-cytometric analysis showed that BM-ANF1 arrested the cell cycle at G1 phase and enhanced annexin-V binding in U937 and K562 cells. Scanning electron microscopic and fluorescent microscopic analysis of U937 and K562 cells revealed the apoptogenic nature of the compound. Alkaline comet assay showed that BM-ANF1 produced DNA fragmentation. The dose-dependent expression of caspase 3 indicated that the apoptogenic properties of BM-ANF1 were mediated through the activation of downstream effector nucleases in the cancer cells. The increased expression of p53 and moderate expression of p21(Cip1)/p27(Kip1) due to BM-ANF1 treatment in HepG2 cells supported that the apoptogenic activity of BM-ANF1 was mediated through p53 tumor-suppressor gene expression followed by the expression of p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) and it was likely to be linked with cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in cancer cells. From the present study, it may be suggested that the crystalline compound, BM-ANF1, was antiproliferative and apoptogenic in human leukemic and hepatoma cells. This article was published in Toxicon and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta

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