Author(s): Newman EA
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Abstract Bidirectional signaling between neurons and glial cells has been demonstrated in brain slices and is believed to mediate glial modulation of synaptic transmission in the CNS. Our laboratory has characterized similar neuron-glia signaling in the mammalian retina. We find that light-evoked neuronal activity elicits Ca(2+) increases in Müller cells, which are specialized retinal glial cells. Neuron to glia signaling is likely mediated by the release of ATP from neurons and is potentiated by adenosine. Glia to neuron signaling has also been observed and is mediated by several mechanisms. Stimulation of glial cells can result in either facilitation or depression of synaptic transmission. Release of D-serine from Müller cells might also potentiate NMDA receptor transmission. Müller cells directly inhibit ganglion cells by releasing ATP, which, following hydrolysis to adenosine, activates neuronal A(1) receptors. The existence of bidirectional signaling mechanisms indicates that glial cells participate in information processing in the retina.
This article was published in Neuron Glia Biol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology