Author(s): Sandino C, Planell JA, Lacroix D
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Abstract Mechanical stimuli are one of the factors that affect cell proliferation and differentiation in the process of bone tissue regeneration. Knowledge on the specific deformation sensed by cells at a microscopic level when mechanical loads are applied is still missing in the development of biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of the mechanical stimuli within some calcium phosphate-based scaffolds in terms of stress and strain distributions in the solid material phase and fluid velocity, fluid pressure and fluid shear stress distributions in the pores filled of fluid, by means of micro computed tomographed (CT)-based finite element (FE) models. Two samples of porous materials, one of calcium phosphate-based cement and another of biodegradable glass, were used. Compressive loads equivalent to 0.5\% of compression applied to the solid material phase and interstitial fluid flows with inlet velocities of 1, 10 and 100 microm/s applied to the interconnected pores were simulated, changing also the inlet side and the viscosity of the medium. Similar strain distributions for both materials were found, with compressive and tensile strain maximal values of 1.6\% and 0.6\%, respectively. Mean values were consistent with the applied deformation. When 10 microm/s of inlet fluid velocity and 1.45 Pas viscosity, maximal values of fluid velocity were 12.76 mm/s for CaP cement and 14.87 mm/s for glass. Mean values were consistent with the inlet ones applied, and mean values of shear stress were around 5 x 10(-5)Pa. Variations on inlet fluid velocity and fluid viscosity produce proportional and independent changes in fluid velocity, fluid shear stress and fluid pressure. This study has shown how mechanical loads and fluid flow applied on the scaffolds cause different levels of mechanical stimuli within the samples according to the morphology of the materials.
This article was published in J Biomech
and referenced in Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability