Author(s): Drummond KD, Bradley SJ, PetersonBadali M, Zucker KJ
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Abstract This study provided information on the natural histories of 25 girls with gender identity disorder (GID). Standardized assessment data in childhood (mean age, 8.88 years; range, 3-12 years) and at follow-up (mean age, 23.24 years; range, 15-36 years) were used to evaluate gender identity and sexual orientation. At the assessment in childhood, 60\% of the girls met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for GID, and 40\% were subthreshold for the diagnosis. At follow-up, 3 participants (12\%) were judged to have GID or gender dysphoria. Regarding sexual orientation, 8 participants (32\%) were classified as bisexual/homosexual in fantasy, and 6 (24\%) were classified as bisexual/homosexual in behavior. The remaining participants were classified as either heterosexual or asexual. The rates of GID persistence and bisexual/homosexual sexual orientation were substantially higher than base rates in the general female population derived from epidemiological or survey studies. There was some evidence of a "dosage" effect, with girls who were more cross-sex typed in their childhood behavior more likely to be gender dysphoric at follow-up and more likely to have been classified as bisexual/homosexual in behavior (but not in fantasy). Copyright (c) 2008 APA.
This article was published in Dev Psychol
and referenced in Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy