Author(s): LovekampSwan T, Glendenning M, Schreihofer DA
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Abstract Soy phytoestrogens have been proposed as an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy and have demonstrated potential neuroprotective effects in the brain. We have shown that a high soy diet significantly reduces infarct size following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Here, we tested the hypothesis that a high soy diet would attenuate programmed cell death after stroke. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and fed either an isoflavone-reduced diet (IFP) or a high soy diet (SP) for 2 weeks before undergoing 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) followed by 22.5 h reperfusion. Infarct size, as assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, was significantly reduced by a high soy diet (P<0.05). Apoptosis in the ischemic cortex, measured by TUNEL staining, was significantly reduced by the high soy diet. The number of active caspase-3 positive cells and caspase-mediated alpha-spectrin cleavage were also significantly decreased in the ischemic cortex of SP rats. Furthermore, nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was significantly reduced in the ischemic cortex of SP rats. Soy significantly increased bcl-x(L) mRNA and protein expression in the ischemic cortex compared with IFP rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased neuronal expression of bcl-2 and bcl-x(L) in the ischemic cortex of both IFP and SP rats following tMCAO. These results suggest that a high soy diet decreases both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent programmed cell death following tMCAO. Further, a high soy diet enhances expression of the cell survival factor bcl-x(L) following tMCAO, contributing to the neuroprotective effects of soy in the ischemic cortex.
This article was published in Neuroscience
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy