alexa A mechanistic approach for modulation of chlorpyrifos-induced toxicity in human lymphocytes by melatonin, coenzyme Q10, and vinpocetine.
Chemistry

Chemistry

Medicinal Chemistry

Author(s): Ghayomi F, NavaeiNigjeh M, Baeeri M, Rezvanfar MA, Abdollahi M

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Abstract BACKGROUND: Chlorpyrifos (CP) is an organophosphorus pesticide that induces oxidative stress through the production of free radicals and depletes intracellular antioxidant reserves. In this study, the efficacy of three antioxidants (melatonin, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and vinpocetine) on alleviation of toxic effects of CP was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity of CP, in the presence or absence of effective doses of melatonin, CoQ10, and vinpocetine, was determined in human peripheral blood lymphocytes after 72-h exposure. The levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity along with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), as inflammatory index, were measured. Further, the viability and oxidative stress markers including cellular mitochondrial activity, cell death modes (apoptosis vs. necrosis), total antioxidant power (TAP), total thiol molecules (TTM), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. RESULTS: CoQ10 and also the combination of the three antioxidants were the most notable in opposing toxicity of CP and led to increasing TAP and TTM; improvement of AChE activity; and lowering LPO, MPO, TNF-α, and apoptosis compared to CP alone. CONCLUSION: CP toxicity overwhelms the intracellular antioxidant defense mechanisms. Exogenous supplementation with antioxidants, such as the ones we have investigated, seems to be effective in the prevention of cytotoxicity of CP. © The Author(s) 2015. This article was published in Hum Exp Toxicol and referenced in Medicinal Chemistry

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