alexa A molecular perspective of CTLA-4 function.


Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

Author(s): Teft WA, Kirchhof MG, Madrenas J

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Abstract Within the paradigm of the two-signal model of lymphocyte activation, the interest in costimulation has witnessed a remarkable emergence in the past few years with the discovery of a large array of molecules that can serve this role, including some with an inhibitory function. Interest has been further enhanced by the realization of these molecules' potential as targets to modulate clinical immune responses. Although the therapeutic translation of mechanistic knowledge in costimulatory molecules has been relatively straightforward, the capacity to target their inhibitory counterparts has remained limited. This limited capacity is particularly apparent in the case of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), a major negative regulator of T cell responses. Because there have been several previous comprehensive reviews on the function of this molecule, we focus here on the physiological implications of its structural features. Such an exercise may ultimately help us to design immunotherapeutic agents that target CTLA-4. This article was published in Annu Rev Immunol and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

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