Author(s): Bowie C, Purcell B, Shaba B, Makaula P, Perez M
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Past estimates have put the prevalence of schistosomiasis between 40\% and 50\% in the Malawi population overall based on studies undertaken ten years or more ago. More recent surveys in known high risk areas find similar levels. However control measures, changing ecology and migration may have led to changes in the prevalence of schistosomiasis in different parts of Malawi. A national schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) survey was undertaken to measure the distribution, prevalence and intensity of infection in November 2002. METHODS: A school was selected randomly from a random sample of 30 Traditional Authorities stratified by six distinct ecological zones, and 1,664 year 3 pupils (9-10 year olds) were questioned about recent illnesses and "red urine". Samples of urine and faeces were examined for the presence of eggs using the standard Kato-Katz technique for soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal schistosomiasis and urine samples using the filtration technique for Schistosoma haematobium. RESULTS: The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni is 0.4\% (95\% CI 0-1.3\%), S. haematobium 6.9\% (95\% CI 1.9 - 11.9\%), hookworm 1.3\% (95\% CI 0.4-2.3\%), Ascariasis 0.5\% (95\% CI 0.1-1.0\%) and trichuriasis 0\% in year 3 pupils (modal age 10 years of age). Intensity of infection is low for all infections except for 2.5\% who have high intensity S. haematobium infection. The "red urine" question is 67\% sensitive and 80\% specific for positive S. haematobium microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in prevalences may be real as a result of recent control measures, or false if historical results were based on surveys of high risk populations. Another explanation is that this survey used an unrepresentative sample of schools. Detailed analysis suggests this is unlikely. Recommendations include the use of a 30\% positive threshold for the "red urine" screening question to be used in schoolchildren in high prevalence areas. This survey, based on a national probability sample excluding the northern region lakeside area, finds much lower overall prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis and STHs than previous estimates based on selected surveys. Disease control featuring chemotherapy may be having a profound effect. The localised nature of the distribution of the infections means that control programmes may work best if undertaken at district level or below. "Red urine" questionnaire surveys may help identify hot spots.
This article was published in BMC Infect Dis
and referenced in Journal of Tropical Diseases & Public Health