alexa A novel Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase gene of Medicago truncatula plays a predominant role in stress-induced proline accumulation during symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access

Author(s): Kim GB, Nam YW

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Abstract Proline accumulates in environmentally stressed plant cells including those of legume roots and nodules, but how its level is regulated is poorly understood. Δ(1)-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), the committed-step enzyme of proline biosynthesis, is encoded by two duplicated genes in many plants. Here, we isolated MtP5CS3, a third gene, from Medicago truncatula, whose predicted polypeptide sequence is highly similar to those of previously isolated MtP5CS1 and MtP5CS2 except an extra amino-terminal segment. MtP5CS3 was strongly expressed under salinity and drought in shoots and nodulating roots, while MtP5CS1 was constitutive and MtP5CS2 induced by abscisic acid. Under salinity, MtP5CS3 promoter was more active than those of MtP5CS1 and MtP5CS2, as shown by GUS fusions. Translationally fused MtP5CS1-GFP was localized in the cytoplasm, whereas significant proportions of MtP5CS2-GFP and MtP5CS3-GFP were co-localized with rubisco small subunit protein-fused RFP in transformed hairy root cells. Under salinity, RNA silencing of MtP5CS1 or MtP5CS2 strongly induced MtP5CS3 expression, while that of MtP5CS3 decreased free proline content and nodule number. Consistently, Mtp5cs3, a loss-of-function mutant, accumulated much less proline, formed fewer nodules, and fixed nitrogen significantly less efficiently than the wild type under salinity. Thus, MtP5CS3 plays a critical role in regulating stress-induced proline accumulation during symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. This article was published in J Plant Physiol and referenced in Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access

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