Author(s): Rah B, Amin H, Yousuf K, Khan S, Jamwal G,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Withaferin A, which is a naturally derived steroidal lactone, has been found to prevent angiogenesis and metastasis in diverse tumor models. It has also been recognized by different groups for prominent anti-carcinogenic roles. However, in spite of these studies on withanolides, their detailed anti-metastatic mechanism of action remained unknown. The current study has poised to address the machinery involved in invasion regulation by stable derivative of Withaferin A, 3-azido Withaferin A (3-azidoWA) in human cervical HeLa and prostate PC-3 cells. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sub-toxic concentration of 3-azidowithaferin A (3-azido WA) inhibited cancer cell motility and invasion in wound healing and Boyden chamber invasion by suppressing MMP-2 activity in gelatin zymography and its expression has proved to be a major obstacle in chemo-sensitivity. We have uncovered a novel mechanism of 3-azidoWA induced extracellular pro-apoptotic candidate tumor suppressor Par-4 protein stimulation in conditioned media and also noticed a concomitant marked reduction in pAkt and pERK signaling by immunoblot analysis. Furthermore, our zymography results suggest 3-azidoWA induced MMP-2 inhibition was mediated through secretory Par-4. The inhibition of apoptosis by 3-azidoWA could not restore MMP-2 gelatinase activity. In addition to this, our in vivo animal experiments data showed 3-azidoWA abrogated neovascularisation in dose dependent manner in mouse Matrigel plug assay. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: For this report, we found that 3-azidoWA suppressed motility and invasion of HeLa and PC-3 cells in MMP-2 dependent manner. Our in vitro result strongly suggests that sub-toxic doses of 3-azidoWA enhanced the secretion of extracellular Par-4 that abolished secretory MMP-2 expression and activity. Depletion of secretory Par-4 restored MMP-2 expression and invasion capability of HeLa and PC-3 cells. Further, our findings implied that 3-azidoWA attenuated internal phospho-ERK and phospho-Akt expression in a dose dependent manner might play a key role in inhibition of mouse angiogenesis by 3-azidoWA.
This article was published in PLoS One
and referenced in Andrology-Open Access