alexa A novel risk factor for a novel virus: obesity and 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1).
Psychiatry

Psychiatry

Clinical Depression

Author(s): Louie JK, Acosta M, Samuel MC, Schechter R, Vugia DJ,

Abstract Share this page

Abstract BACKGROUND: many critically ill patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (2009 H1N1) infection were noted to be obese, but whether obesity, rather than its associated co-morbidities, is an independent risk factor for severe infection is unknown. METHODS: using public health surveillance data, we analyzed demographic and clinical characteristics of California residents hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 infection to assess whether obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30) and extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 40) were an independent risk factor for death among case patients ≥ 20 years old. RESULTS: during the period 20 April-11 August 2009, 534 adult case patients with 2009 H1N1 infection for whom BMI information was available were observed. Two hundred twenty-eight patients (43\%) were ≥ 50 years of age, and 378 (72\%) had influenza-related high-risk conditions recognized by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices as risk factors for severe influenza. Two hundred and seventy-four (51\%) had BMI ≥ 30, which is 2.2 times the prevalence of obesity among California adults (23\%) and 1.5 times the prevalence among the general population of the United States (33\%). Of the 92 case patients who died (17\%), 56 (61\%) had BMI ≥ 30 and 28 (30\%) had BMI ≥ 40. In multivariate analysis, BMI ≥ 40 (odds ratio [OR], 2.8; 95\% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-5.9) and BMI ≥ 45 (OR, 4.2; 95\% CI, 1.9-9.4), age ≥ 50 years (OR, 2.1; 95\% CI, 1.2-3.7), miscellaneous immunosuppressive conditions (OR, 3.9; 95\% CI, 1.6-9.5), and asthma (OR, 0.5; 95\% CI, 0.3-0.9) were associated with death. CONCLUSION: half of Californians ≥ 20 years of age hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 infection were obese. Extreme obesity was associated with increased odds of death. Obese adults with 2009 H1N1 infection should be treated promptly and considered in prioritization of vaccine and antiviral medications during shortages. This article was published in Clin Infect Dis and referenced in Clinical Depression

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

  • Enrique M. Ostrea
    Alluvial and riparian soils as major sources of lead exposure in young children in the Philippines: The role of floods
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Pilar Montesó Curto
    Diagnosed, Identified, Current and Complete Depression Among Patients Attending Primary Care in Southern Catalonia: Different Aspects of the Same Concept
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Yosef Yarden
    Classically, the 3’untranslated region (3’UTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3’UTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5’UTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3’UTR RNA (referred as I3’UTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3’UTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3’UTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3’UTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3’UTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3’UTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3’UTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990’s to 2000’s, world scientists found several 3’UTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3’UTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3’UTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3’UTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Sahreen Malik Bhanji
    Social determinants of depression among HIV positive patients in Karachi, Pakistan
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Hui-Mei Chen
    Randomised Controlled Trial on the Effectiveness of Home-Based Walking Exercise on Depression in Patients with Lung Cancer
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Heather MacDonald
    Removing the mask: Women returning to work after a lapse due to depression
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Heather Mac Donald
    Battling adversity: Women’s journey back to work after a lapse due to depression
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Marcelo Febo
    3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), a major bath salt drug, reduces functional connectivity in rat brain
    PPT Version | PDF Version

Recommended Conferences

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords