Author(s): Gridley KE, Green PS, Simpkins JW
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Abstract The present studies were undertaken to investigate the possibility of an interaction between 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and glutathione in protecting cells against the presence of beta-amyloid 25-35 (betaAP 25-35). We demonstrate that when evaluated individually, supraphysiological concentrations of either E2 (200 nM) or of reduced glutathione (GSH; 325 microM) can protect SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells from betaAP 25-35 (20 microM) toxicity. This dose of betaAP 25-35 was chosen based on the LD50 (28.9 microM) obtained in our earlier work. However, in the presence of 3.25 microM GSH, the neuroprotective EC50 of E2 was shifted from 126 +/- 89 nM to 0.033 +/- 0.031 nM, approximately 4000-fold. Similarly, in primary rat cortical neurons, the addition of GSH (3.25 microM) increased the potency of E2 against betaAP 25-35 (10 microM) toxicity, as evidenced by a shift in the EC50 values of E2 from 68 +/- 79 nM in the absence of GSH to 4 +/- 6 nM in its presence. The synergy between E2 and GSH was not antagonized by the addition of the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780. Other thiol-containing compounds did not interact synergistically with E2, nor were any synergistic interactions observed between E2 and ascorbic acid or alpha-tocopherol. Based on these data, we propose an estrogen-receptor independent synergistic interaction between glutathione and E2 that dramatically increases the neuroprotective potency of the steroid and may provide insight for the development of new treatment strategies for neurodegenerative diseases.
This article was published in Mol Pharmacol
and referenced in Journal of Steroids & Hormonal Science