Author(s): Russell HV, Groshen SG, Ara T, DeClerck YA, Hawkins R,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Zoledronic acid, a bisphosphonate, delays progression of bone metastases in adult malignancies. Bone is a common metastatic site of advanced neuroblastoma. We previously reported efficacy of zoledronic acid in a murine model of neuroblastoma bone invasion prompting this Phase I trial of zoledronic acid with cyclophosphamide in children with neuroblastoma and bone metastases. The primary objective was to determine recommended dosing of zoledronic acid for future trials. PROCEDURE: Escalating doses of intravenous zoledronic acid were given every 28 days with oral metronomic cyclophosphamide (25 mg/m(2)/day). Toxicity, response, zoledronic acid pharmacokinetics, bone turnover markers, serum IL-6, and sIL-6R were evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients, median age 7.5 (range 0.8-25.6) years were treated with 2 mg/m(2) (n = 4), 3 mg/m(2) (n = 3), or 4 mg/m(2) (n = 14) zoledronic acid. Fourteen patients were evaluable for dose escalation. A median of one (range 1-18) courses was given. Two dose limiting toxicities (grade 3 hypophosphatemia) occurred at 4 mg/m(2) zoledronic acid. Other grades 3-4 toxicities included hypocalcemia (n = 2), elevated transaminases (n = 1), neutropenia (n = 2), anemia (n = 1), lymphopenia (n = 1), and hypokalemia (n = 1). Osteosclerosis contributed to fractures in one patient after 18 courses. Responses in evaluable patients included 1 partial response, 9 stable disease (median 4.5 courses, range 3-18), and 10 progressions. Zoledronic acid pharmacokinetics were similar to adults. Markers of osteoclast activity and serum IL-6 levels decreased with therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Zoledronic acid with metronomic cyclophosphamide is well tolerated with clinical and biologic responses in recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma. The recommended dose of zoledronic acid is 4 mg/m(2) every 28 days. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
This article was published in Pediatr Blood Cancer
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology