Author(s): Robles GI, SinghFranco D, Ghin HL
Abstract Share this page
Abstract BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Research suggests that behavioral support strategies and pharmacotherapy can improve abstinence rates. However, both approaches, especially pharmacotherapy, have been understudied in nonwhite US populations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of smoking-cessation pharmacotherapy in nonwhite US populations. METHODS: Using search terms smoking cessation, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion SR, varenicline, minority, ethnicity, African American, black, Hispanic, American Indian, and Alaska Native, a literature search was conducted to identify English-language studies that evaluated the use of smoking-cessation pharmacotherapies in nonwhite patients in MEDLINE (1966\2-December 2007), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1980\2-January 2008), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (1990\2-December 2007), and EMBASE Drugs & Pharmacology (1991\2-third quarter 2007). RESULTS: Nine studies were identified and assessed. Six studies looked at smoking-cessation pharmacotherapy in black smokers, 1 in Hispanic smokers, 1 in Native American smokers, and 1 in white and nonwhite smokers. In black smokers (N = 410; mean cigarettes per day [cpd], 20.4) who received the nicotine patch versus placebo, the 30-day self-reported abstinence rates were 21.5\% versus 13.7\% (P = 0.03) at 10 weeks and 17.1\% versus 11.7\% (P = NS) at 6 months. In black smokers (N = 600; mean [SD] cpd, 16.1 [7.5]) who received sustained-release (SR) bupropion 150 mg BID versus placebo for 7 weeks, the 7-day biochemically verified abstinence rates at weeks 6 and 26 were 36.0\% versus 19.0\% (Delta, 17\%; 95\% CI, 9.7\2-24.4; P < 0.001) and 21.0\% versus 13.7\% (Delta, 7.3\%; 95\% CI, 1.0\2-13.7; P = 0.02). Predictors of smoking cessation included use of bupropion SR (abstinence rate, 41.5\% vs 21.1\%; P<0.001); smoking nonmentholated cigarettes (abstinence rate, 28.3\% in mentholated smokers [n = 417] vs 41.5\% in nonmentholated smokers [n = 118]; P = 0.006); not smoking within 30 minutes of awakening (abstinence rate, 26.4\% [n = 420] in those who did vs 48.7\% [n = 115] in those who did not; P < 0.001); and lower baseline salivary cotinine levels (256.8 [137.0] ng/mL in those who became abstinent vs 305.6 [143.4] ng/mL in those who remained smokers; P < 0.001). In black light (or=7 consecutive days (odds ratio, 0.20; 95\% CI, 0.05-0.77; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Data from the studies in this review support the use of smoking-cessation pharmacotherapy (nicotine patch and bupropion SR) in nonwhite patients. Black patients, who smoked within 30 minutes of awakening, smoked mentholated cigarettes, and had high salivary cotinine levels may have difficulty quitting regardless of the number of cigarettes smoked per day; therefore, determining the type of cigarettes smoked (mentholated vs nonmentholated) and salivary cotinine levels may be helpful in assessing the severity of smoking addiction and guide pharmacotherapy (eg, starting at higher doses of nicotine-replacement therapy in a light smoker). Other than smoking-cessation behavioral studies, there is a lack of congruent smoking-cessation pharmacotherapy studies in American Indian/Alaska Native, Hispanic, and other ethnic populations.
This article was published in Clin Ther and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy