alexa A spectrum of LMX1B mutations in Nail-Patella syndrome: new point mutations, deletion, and evidence of mosaicism in unaffected parents.
Genetics & Molecular Biology

Genetics & Molecular Biology

Journal of Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy

Author(s): Marini M, Bocciardi R, Gimelli S, Di Duca M, Divizia MT,

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Abstract PURPOSE: Nail-Patella syndrome (MIM 161200) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypoplastic or absent patellae, dystrophic nails, dysplasia of the elbows, and iliac horn. In 40\% of cases, a glomerular defect is present and, less frequently, ocular damage is observed. Inter- and intrafamilial variable expressivity of the clinical phenotype is a common finding. Mutations in the human LMX1B gene have been demonstrated to be responsible for Nail-Patella syndrome in around 80\% of cases. METHODS: Standard polymerase chain reaction and sequencing methods were used for mutation and single nucleotide polymorphism identification and control of cloned sequences. Array-CGH (Agilent, 244A Kit) was used for detection of deletions. Standard cloning techniques and the Snapshot method were used for analysis of mosaicism. RESULTS: In this study, we present the results of LMX1B screening of 20 Nail-Patella syndrome patients. The molecular defect was found in 17 patients. We report five novel mutations and a approximately 2 Mb deletion in chromosome 9q encompassing the entire LMX1B gene in a patient with a complex phenotype. We present evidence of somatic mosaicism in unaffected parents in two cases, which, to our knowledge, are the first reported cases of inheritance of a mutated LMX1B allele in Nail-Patella syndrome patients from a mosaic parent. CONCLUSION: The study of the described case series provides some original observations in an "old" genetic disorder. This article was published in Genet Med and referenced in Journal of Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy

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