Author(s): Sherwood JK, Riley SL, Palazzolo R, Brown SC, Monkhouse DC,
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Abstract There is a recognized and urgent need for improved treatment of articular cartilage defects. Tissue engineering of cartilage using a cell-scaffold approach has demonstrated potential to offer an alternative and effective method for treating articular defects. We have developed a unique, heterogeneous, osteochondral scaffold using the TheriForm three-dimensional printing process. The material composition, porosity, macroarchitecture, and mechanical properties varied throughout the scaffold structure. The upper, cartilage region was 90\% porous and composed of D,L-PLGA/L-PLA, with macroscopic staggered channels to facilitate homogenous cell seeding. The lower, cloverleaf-shaped bone portion was 55\% porous and consisted of a L-PLGA/TCP composite, designed to maximize bone ingrowth while maintaining critical mechanical properties. The transition region between these two sections contained a gradient of materials and porosity to prevent delamination. Chondrocytes preferentially attached to the cartilage portion of the device, and biochemical and histological analyses showed that cartilage formed during a 6-week in vitro culture period. The tensile strength of the bone region was similar in magnitude to fresh cancellous human bone, suggesting that these scaffolds have desirable mechanical properties for in vivo applications, including full joint replacement. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
This article was published in Biomaterials
and referenced in Journal of Tissue Science & Engineering