Author(s): KohwiShigematsu T, Maass K, Bode J
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Abstract SATB1 specifically recognizes and binds to specialized genomic regions with an ATC sequence context with high base-unpairing propensity. Such base-unpairing regions (BURs) are typically identified within nuclear scaffold- or matrix-attachment regions (S/MARs). SATB1 is a homeodomain protein and is predominantly expressed in thymocytes. We obtained BHK cell lines expressing low levels of SATB1 by stable transfection and investigated its effect on stably integrated MAR-linked SV40 enhancer/promoter-driven luciferase reporter genes. For this study, both naturally occurring and synthetic MARs, as well as an AT-rich non-MAR control, were tested. Previous studies demonstrated that MAR sequences augment transcription of the linked reporter luciferase gene. Here, we show that SATB1 dramatically reduces the high levels of MAR-linked luciferase gene transcription. Transcription was virtually abolished for a reporter gene surrounded by two MARs at the 5' and 3' ends of the gene, which otherwise confer the highest level of transcriptional augmentation. On the other hand, SATB1 did not affect expression of an AT-rich non-MAR-linked luciferase gene or of endogenous housekeeping genes. This study shows that SATB1 acts as a strong transcriptional suppressor on a reporter gene linked to MARs when it is stably integrated into chromatin.
This article was published in Biochemistry
and referenced in Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine
- Eugene Stephane Mananga
On Fer and Floquet-Magnus expansions: Application in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics
- Yosef Yarden
Classically, the 3âuntranslated region (3âUTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3âUTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5âUTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3âUTR RNA (referred as I3âUTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3âUTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3âUTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3âUTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3âUTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3âUTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3âUTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990âs to 2000âs, world scientists found several 3âUTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3âUTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3âUTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3âUTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
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