Author(s): Yagishita N, Yamamoto Y, Yoshizawa T, Sekine K, Uematsu Y,
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Abstract VDR forms heterodimers with one of three RXRs, RXR alpha, RXR beta, and RXR gamma, and it is thought that RXR ligands can also modulate the trans-activation function of VDR/RXR heterodimers. In the present study we generated VDR/RXR gamma double null mutant mice to examine the convergent actions of vitamin D and vitamin A signaling and to explore the possibility of a functionally redundant VDR. Although RXR gamma(-/-) mice exhibited no overt abnormalities, VDR(-/-)/RXR gamma(-/-) mice appeared similar to VDR(-/-) mice, showing features typical of vitamin D-dependent rickets type II, including growth retardation, impaired bone formation, hypocalcemia, and alopecia. However, compared to VDR(-/-) mice, growth plate development in VDR(-/-)/RXR gamma(-/-) mutant mice was more severely impaired. Normalizing mineral ion homeostasis through dietary supplementation with high calcium and phosphorous effectively prevented rachitic abnormalities, except for disarranged growth plates in VDR(-/-)/RXR gamma(-/-) mutant mice, and alopecia in both VDR(-/-) and VDR(-/-)/RXR gamma(-/-) mutant mice. Histological analysis of VDR(-/-)/RXR gamma(-/-) growth plates revealed that development of the hypertrophic chondrocytes was selectively impaired. Thus, our findings indicated that the combined actions of VDR- and RXR gamma-mediated signals are essential for the normal development of growth plate chondrocytes, and raised the possibility that a functionally redundant VDR is present on chondrocytes as a heterodimer with RXR gamma.
This article was published in Endocrinology
and referenced in Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability