alexa Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of darunavir, a new protease inhibitor, administered alone and with low-dose ritonavir in healthy subjects.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety

Author(s): Vermeir M, LachauDurand S, Mannens G, Cuyckens F, van Hoof B,

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Abstract Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of darunavir, an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus protease, was studied in eight healthy male subjects after a single oral dose of 400 mg of [(14)C]darunavir given alone (unboosted subjects) or with ritonavir [100 mg b.i.d. 2 days before and 7 days after darunavir administration (boosted subjects)]. Plasma exposure to darunavir was 11-fold higher in boosted subjects. Total recoveries of radioactivity in urine and feces were 93.9 and 93.5\% of administered radioactivity in unboosted and boosted subjects, respectively. The most radioactivity was recovered in feces (81.7\% in unboosted subjects and 79.5\% in boosted subjects, compared with 12.2 and 13.9\% recovered in urine, respectively). Darunavir was extensively metabolized in unboosted subjects, mainly by carbamate hydrolysis, isobutyl aliphatic hydroxylation, and aniline aromatic hydroxylation and to a lesser extent by benzylic aromatic hydroxylation and glucuronidation. Total excretion of unchanged darunavir accounted for 8.0\% of the dose in unboosted subjects. Boosting with ritonavir resulted in significant inhibition of carbamate hydrolysis, isobutyl aliphatic hydroxylation, and aniline aromatic hydroxylation but had no effect on aromatic hydroxylation at the benzylic moiety, whereas excretion of glucuronide metabolites was markedly increased but still represented a minor pathway. Total excretion of unchanged darunavir accounted for 48.8\% of the administered dose in boosted subjects as a result of the inhibition of darunavir metabolism by ritonavir. Unchanged darunavir in urine accounted for 1.2\% of the administered dose in unboosted subjects and 7.7\% in boosted subjects, indicating a low renal clearance. Darunavir administered alone or with ritonavir was well tolerated. This article was published in Drug Metab Dispos and referenced in Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety

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