Author(s): Shankaranarayanan P, Chaitidis P, Khn H, Nigam S
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Abstract Interleukin-4 (IL-4) induces expression of reticulocyte-type 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) in various mammalian cells via the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) signaling system. We studied the mechanism of 15-LOX-1 induction in A549 lung epithelial cells and found that genistein, a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor, prevented phopsphorylation of STAT6, its binding to the 15-LOX-1 promoter, and the expression of catalytically active enzyme. In contrast, cycloheximide did not prevent 15-LOX-1 induction. Surprisingly, we found that IL-4 up-regulated the histone acetyltransferase activity of CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300, which is responsible for acetylation of nuclear histones and STAT6. The acetylation of both proteins appears to be essential for the IL-4-induced signal transduction cascade, because inhibition of CBP/p300 by the viral wild-type E1A oncoprotein abrogated acetylation of both histones and STAT6 and strongly suppressed transcriptional activation of the 15-LOX-1 gene. Moreover, we found that the inhibition by sodium butyrate of histone deacetylases, which apparently suppress 15-LOX-1 gene transcription, synergistically enhanced the IL-4-stimulated 15-LOX-1 expression. These data suggest that both phosphorylation and acetylation of STAT6 as well as acetylation of nuclear histones are involved in transcriptional activation of the 15-LOX-1 gene, although these reactions follow differential kinetics. STAT6 phosphorylation proceeds within the first hour of IL-4 stimulation. In contrast, CBP/p300-mediated acetylation requires 9-11 h, and similar kinetics were observed for the expression of the active enzyme. Thus, our results suggest that in the absence of IL-4, nuclear histones may be bound to regulatory elements of the 15-LOX-1 gene, preventing its transcription. IL-4 stimulation causes rapid phosphorylation of STAT6, but its binding to the promoter appears to be prevented by nonacetylated histones. After 9-11 h, when histones become acetylated, STAT6 binding sites may be demasked so that the phosphorylated and acetylated transcription factor can bind to activate gene transcription.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Cytokine Biology