alexa Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by temozolomide contributes to apoptosis in glioblastoma cells via p53 activation and mTORC1 inhibition
Oncology

Oncology

Chemotherapy: Open Access

Author(s): Zhang WB, Wang Z, Shu F, Jin YH, Liu HY

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Methylating drugs such as temozolomide (TMZ) are widely used in the treatment of brain tumors including malignant glioblastoma. The mechanism of TMZ-induced glioblastoma cell death and apoptosis, however, is not fully understood. Here, we tested the potential involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in this process. We found that methylating agents TMZ and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induce AMPK activation in primary cultured human glioblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines. TMZ-induced O(6)-methylguanine production is involved in AMPK activation. O(6)-benzylguanine, an O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, enhances TMZ-induced O(6)-methylguanine production, leading to enhanced reactive oxygen species production, which serves as an upstream signal for AMPK activation. Activation of AMPK is involved in TMZ-induced glioblastoma cell death and apoptosis. AMPK inhibitor (Compound C) or AMPKα siRNA knockdown inhibits TMZ-induced glioblastoma cell death and apoptosis, whereas AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside enhances it. In further studies, we found that activation of AMPK is involved in TMZ-induced p53 activation and subsequent p21, Noxa, and Bax up-regulation. Activation of AMPK by TMZ also inhibits mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and promotes anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 down-regulation, which together mediate TMZ-induced pro-cell apoptosis effects. Our study suggests that activation of AMPK by TMZ contributes to glioblastoma cell apoptosis, probably by promoting p53 activation and inhibiting mTORC1 signaling.

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This article was published in J Biol Chem and referenced in Chemotherapy: Open Access

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