Author(s): Benner GE, Dennis PB, Masaracchia RA
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Abstract The S6/H4 kinase purified from human placenta catalyzes phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein, histone H4, and myelin basic protein. In vitro activation of the p60 S6/H4 kinase requires removal of an autoinhibitory domain by mild trypsin digestion and autophosphorylation of the catalytic domain (p40 S6/H4 kinase). The two autophosphorylation/autoactivation sites contain the sequences SSMVGTPY (site 1) and SVIDPVPAPVGDSHVDGAAK (site 2). These sequences identify S6H4 kinase as the rac-activated PAK65 (Martin, G. A., Bollag, G., McCormick, F. and Abo, A. (1995) EMBO J. 14, 1971-1978). Site 1 phosphorylation is most rapid, but activation does not occur until site 2 is autophosphorylated. The site 1 phosphorylation occurs by an intramolecular mechanism whereas site 2 autophosphorylation occurs by an intermolecular mechanism. A model is proposed in which phosphorylation of sites 1 and 2 occurs sequentially. The model proposes that trypsin treatment of the inactive holoenzyme removes an inhibitory rac-binding domain which blocks MgATP access to the catalytic site. The pseudosubstrate domain at site 1 is autophosphorylated and subsequent bimolecular autophosphorylation at site 2 fully opens the catalytic site. Phosphorylation by a regulatory protein kinase may occur at site 2 in vivo.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics