Author(s): Triggiani M, Granata F, Frattini A, Marone G
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Abstract Secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s) are enzymes detected in serum and biological fluids of patients with various inflammatory, autoimmune and allergic disorders. Different isoforms of sPLA(2)s are expressed and released by human inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils, eosinophils, T cells, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells. sPLA(2)s generate arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids thus contributing to the production of bioactive lipid mediators in inflammatory cells. However, sPLA(2)s also activate human inflammatory cells by mechanisms unrelated to their enzymatic activity. Several human and non-human sPLA(2)s induce degranulation of mast cells, neutrophils and eosinophils and activate exocytosis in macrophages. In addition some, but not all, sPLA(2) isoforms promote cytokine and chemokine production from macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and endothelial cells. These effects are primarily mediated by binding of sPLA(2)s to specific membrane targets (heparan sulfate proteoglycans, M-type, N-type or mannose receptors) expressed on effector cells. Thus, sPLA(2)s may play an important role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory reactions by at least two mechanisms: production of lipid mediators and direct activation of inflammatory cells. Selective inhibitors of sPLA(2)-enzymatic activity and specific antagonists of sPLA(2) receptors are current being tested for pharmacological treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
This article was published in Biochim Biophys Acta
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology