Author(s): Karmakar S, Choudhury SR, Banik NL, Ray SK
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Abstract Glioblastoma is the most malignant brain tumor of astroglial origin. It renders poor response or resistance to existing therapeutics. We used all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) alone and in combination for controlling human glioblastoma T98G xenografted in nude mice. Histopathological examination showed astrocytic differentiation in ATRA group, some apoptosis in IFN-γ group, and occurrence of differentiation and enhancement of apoptosis in ATRA plus IFN-γ group. ATRA plus IFN-γ induced extrinsic pathway of apoptosis by activation of caspase-8 and cleavage of Bid to tBid and also down regulation of hTERT, c-IAP2, and survivin and upregulation of Smac/Diablo to promote apoptosis. Mitochondrial release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) induced caspase-independent pathway and also upregulation of calpain and caspase-dependent pathways ultimately activated caspase-3 for apoptosis. Increased activities of calpain and caspase-3 degraded 270 kD α-spectrin at the specific sites to generate 145 kD spectrin breakdown product (SBDP) and 120 kD SBDP, respectively. In situ TUNEL and double immunofluorescent labelings detected apoptosis with increased expression of calpain, caspase-12, caspase-3, and AIF in tumors after treatment with IFN-γ and most effectively with ATRA plus IFN-γ. Results indicated that ATRA plus IFN-γ activated multiple molecular mechanisms for increasing apoptosis in human glioblastoma in vivo.
This article was published in J Cancer Sci Ther
and referenced in Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy