alexa Activation of Ras by receptor tyrosine kinases.
Genetics & Molecular Biology

Genetics & Molecular Biology

Fungal Genomics & Biology

Author(s): Margolis B, Skolnik EY

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Ras, a small GTP-binding protein, is an important component of the signal transduction pathway used by growth factors to initiate cell growth and differentiation. Cell activation with growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces Ras to move from an inactive GDP-bound state to an active GTP-bound state. Recently, a combination of genetic and biochemical studies has resulted in the elucidation of a signaling pathway that leads from growth factor receptors to Ras. After binding EGF, the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase is activated, leading to receptor autophosphorylation on multiple tyrosine residues. Signaling proteins with Src homology 2 (SH2) domains then bind to these tyrosine-phosphorylated residues, initiating multiple signaling cascades. One of these SH2 domain proteins, Grb2, exists in the cytoplasm in a preformed complex with a second protein, Son of Sevenless (Sos), which can catalyze Ras GTP/GDP exchange. After growth factor stimulation, the tyrosine phosphorylated EGF receptor binds the Grb2/Sos complex, translocating it to the plasma membrane. This translocation is thought to bring Sos into close proximity with Ras, leading to the activation of Ras. In contrast, the insulin receptor does not bind Grb2 directly but rather induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of two proteins, insulin receptor substrate-1 and Shc, that bind the Grb2/Sos complex. Once Ras is activated, it proceeds to stimulate a cascade of protein kinases that are important in a myriad of growth factor responses.
This article was published in J Am Soc Nephrol and referenced in Fungal Genomics & Biology

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version