alexa Activation of TGF-beta by Leishmania chagasi: importance for parasite survival in macrophages.
Immunology

Immunology

Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination

Author(s): Gantt KR, SchultzCherry S, Rodriguez N, Jeronimo SM, Nascimento ET,

Abstract Share this page

Abstract TGF-beta is a potent regulatory cytokine that suppresses expression of inducible NO synthase and IFN-gamma, and suppresses Th1 and Th2 cell development. We examined whether functionally active TGF-beta is present in the local environment surrounding the invading protozoan Leishmania chagasi. Our prior data showed that TGF-beta levels are significantly increased in L. chagasi-infected mice. In the current study, we found TGF-beta was also abundant in bone marrows of humans with acute visceral leishmaniasis but not in those of uninfected controls. Furthermore, L. chagasi infection caused an increase in biologically active TGF-beta in human macrophage cultures without changing the total TGF-beta. Therefore, we investigated the means through which leishmania could augment activated but not total TGF-beta. Incubation of latent TGF-beta with Leishmania sp. promastigotes caused active TGF-beta to be released from the latent complex. In contrast, the nonpathogenic protozoan Crithidia fasciculata could not activate TGF-beta. TGF-beta activation by leishmania was prevented by inhibitors of cysteine proteases and by the specific cathepsin B inhibitor CA074. Physiologic concentrations of TGF-beta inhibited killing of intracellular L. chagasi in macrophages, although the phagocytosis-induced respiratory burst remained intact. In contrast, supraphysiologic concentrations of TGF-beta had no effect on parasite survival. We hypothesize that the combined effect of abundant TGF-beta stores at extracellular sites during infection, and the ability of the parasite to activate TGF-beta in its local environment, leads to high levels of active TGF-beta in the vicinity of the infected macrophage. Locally activated TGF-beta could, in turn, enhance parasite survival through its effects on innate and adaptive immune responses.
This article was published in J Immunol and referenced in Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords