Author(s): Montoliu C, Llansola M, Cucarella C, Grisola S, Felipo V
1-Aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, an agonist of the metabotropic glutamate receptors 1, 2, 3 and 5, prevents neurotoxicity of glutamate and of N-methyl-D-aspartate in primary cultures of cerebellar neurons. The aim of this work was to assess which of the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) is responsible for the protective effect. We tested the protective effects of selective agonists for each type of receptor. It is shown that glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotoxicity are prevented by the following compounds: 1-amino-cyclo-pentane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, agonist of mGluR1, 2, 3 and 5; 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, agonist of mGluR1 and 5; S-4-carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine, agonist of mGluR5 and antagonist of mGluR1; trans-azetidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid, agonist of mGluR5. Glutamate neurotoxicity is not prevented by (2S,1'S,2'S)-2(2'-carboxycyclopropyl)glycine, an agonist of mGluR2 and mGluR3. Moreover, the protective effect of 1-aminocyclo-pentane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid is prevented by alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine, an antagonist of mGluR1 and 5, but not by alpha-methyl-4-tetrazoylphenylglycine, an antagonist of mGluR2 and 3. A protective effect of activation of mGluR1 can not be ruled out because of the limitations imposed by the lack of specificity of the agonists and antagonists currently available. The results shown clearly indicate that activation of mGluR5 prevents glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotoxicity in primary cultures of cerebellar neurons.