Author(s): Michel JB, Guettier C, Philippe M, Galen FX, Corvol P,
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Abstract Primate renins (human and monkey) are very similar. We used pure human renin to immunize marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and thereby produce a chronic blockade of the renin-angiotensinogen reaction. After a control period of 2 months, five male marmosets, on their usual sodium-poor diet, were immunized against pure human renin by three subcutaneous injections of 30 micrograms each, with complete and then incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Three marmosets were injected with adjuvant only and served as controls. Blood sampling and blood pressure measurements were performed weekly. After the third injection, the five marmosets immunized against renin developed a high titer of renin antibodies (50\% binding of 125I-labeled human renin at a dilution of greater than or equal to 1:10,000). The antibodies inhibited the enzymatic activity of both marmoset and human renins. At the same time, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly from 125 +/- 13 mm Hg to 87 +/- 8 mm Hg (mean +/- SD; 1 mm Hg = 133 Pa). Plasma renin enzyme activity was undetectable in three animals. Plasma aldosterone decreased significantly. After 1-4 months with low blood pressure, a normal urinary output, and a normal plasma creatinine, the five marmosets became sick and died within one month. At autopsy an immunological renal disease, characterized by the presence of immunoglobulin and macrophage infiltration colocalized with renin, was found. Granulomatous formations, probably due to Freund's adjuvant, could be seen in the lungs and in the kidney. No immunoglobulin was detectable in extrarenal vessels or in other organs. These experiments demonstrate that, in this primate, a chronic blockade of the renin-angiotensin system can be achieved by active immunization against homologous renin, but this blockade is associated with the development of an autoimmune disease localized in the kidney.
This article was published in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
and referenced in Journal of Bioengineering & Biomedical Science