Author(s): Schiekofer S, Andrassy M, Chen J, Rudofsky G, Schneider J, , Schiekofer S, Andrassy M, Chen J, Rudofsky G, Schneider J,
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Abstract Twenty-three nondiabetic volunteers were divided into three groups. In group A (n = 9), the glucose infusion was adjusted to maintain blood glucose at 5 mmol/l (euglycemic clamp). In group B (n = 9), the glucose infusion was adjusted to maintain blood glucose at 10 mmol/l (hyperglycemic clamp) over 2 h. Group C consisted of five volunteers who were studied as the control group. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated before and at the end of a 2-h clamp. In group C, PBMCs were isolated before and after 2 h without performing a clamp. The euglycemic clamp as well as "no clamp" had no effects on all parameters studied. In contrast, a significant increase in carboxymethyllysine (CML) content and p21(ras) and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was observed at the end of a 2-h hyperglycemic clamp. The nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB (but not Oct-1) binding activity increased significantly in the hyperglycemic clamp. Western blots confirmed NF-kappaB-p65-antigen translocation into the nucleus. IkappaBalpha did not change significantly in both groups. Hyperglycemia-mediated NF-kappaB activation and increase of CML content, p21(ras), and p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation was also seen in ex vivo-isolated PBMCs stimulated with 5 or 10 mmol/l glucose. Addition of insulin did not influence the results. Inhibition of activation of ras, MAPK, or protein kinase C blocked hyperglycemia-mediated NF-kappaB activation in ex vivo-isolated PBMCs stimulated with 10 mmol/l glucose. Similar data were obtained using an NF-kappaB-luciferase reporter plasmid. Therefore, we can conclude that an acute hyperglycemia-mediated mononuclear cell activation is dependent on activation of ras, p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation, and subsequent NF-kappaB activation and results in transcriptional activity in PBMCs.
This article was published in Diabetes
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research