alexa Adaptive coordination and alignment of eye and hand.
Physicaltherapy & Rehabilitation

Physicaltherapy & Rehabilitation

International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

Author(s): Redding GM, Wallace B

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Under spatial misalignment of eye and hand induced by laterally displacing prisms (11.4 degrees in the rightward direction), subjects pointed 60 times (once every 3 s) at a visually implicit target (straight ahead of nose, Experiment 1) or a visually explicit target (an objectively straight-ahead target, Experiment 2). For different groups in each experiment, the hand became visible early in the sagittal pointing movement (early visual feedback). Adaptation to the optical misalignment during exposure (direct effects) was rapid, especially with early feedback; complete compensation for the misalignment was achieved within about 30 trials, and overcompensation occurred in later trials, especially with an explicit target. In contrast, adaptation measured with the misalignment removed and without visual feedback after blocks of 10 pointing trials (aftereffects) was slow to develop, especially with delayed feedback and an implicit target; at most, about 40% compensation for the misalignment occurred after 60 trials. This difference between direct effects and aftereffects is discussed in terms of separable adaptive mechanisms that are activated by different error signals. Adaptive coordination is activated by error feedback and involves centrally located, strategically flexible, short-latency processes to correct for sudden changes in operational precision that normally occur with short-term changes in coordination tasks. Adaptive alignment is activated automatically by spatial discordance between misaligned systems and involves distributed, long-latency processes to correct for slowly developing shifts in alignment among perceptual-motor components that normally occur with long-term drift. The sudden onset of misalignment in experimental situations activates both mechanisms in a complex and not always cooperative manner, which may produce overcompensatory behavior during exposure (i.e., direct effects) and which may limit long-term alignment (i.e., aftereffects).

This article was published in J Mot Behav. and referenced in International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

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