alexa Adaptive design method based on sum of p-values.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta

Author(s): Chang M

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Abstract Bauer and Kohne proposed an adaptive design using Fisher's combination of independent p-values based on subsamples from different stages (Biometrics 1994; 50(4):1029-1041). Their method provides great flexibility in the selection of statistical methods for hypothesis testing of subsamples. However, the choices for the stopping boundaries are not flexible enough to meet practical needs (Biometrics 2001; 57(3): 886-891). In this paper, an adaptive design method is proposed using linear combination of the independent p-values. The method provides great flexibility in the selection of stopping boundaries and no numerical integration is required for the two-stage designs. The stopping boundaries and p-values can be calculated manually. The operating characteristics of the adaptive designs are studied using computer simulations with and without sample size adjustment. Examples are presented for superiority and non-inferiority trials with different endpoints (normal, binary, and survival) under different adaptations. The statistical efficiency of the proposed method is compared with other methods based on conditional power. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article was published in Stat Med and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta

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