Author(s): Lagergren J
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Abstract The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma is increasing and the prognosis is poor. There is a strong predominance of white males, and heredity plays a minor role. The established risk factors are Barrett's oesophagus, gastro-oesophageal reflux, and obesity. Infection with Helicobacter pylori and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs might reduce the risk. Medications that relax the lower oesophageal sphincter might contribute to increasing the risk. Among dietary factors, low intake of fruit, vegetables, and cereal fibres seem to increase the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The role of tobacco smoking is probably limited and alcohol consumption is not a risk factor. It is uncertain which factors cause the increasing incidence. Increasing prevalences of reflux and obesity, and decreasing prevalence of H pylori infection may contribute to this development; however, the sex distributions of these factors do not match the incidence trends well. Endoscopic surveillance for oesophageal adenocarcinoma among persons with reflux and obesity is discussed, but presently there is no evidence that strongly supports such a strategy.
This article was published in Gut
and referenced in Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System