Author(s): Piya MK, McTernan PG, Kumar S
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Abstract Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ, and our knowledge of this secretory tissue, in recent years, has led us to completely rethink how our body functions and becomes dysregulated with weight gain. Human adipose tissue appears to act as a multifunctional secretory organ with the capacity to control energy homoeostasis through peripheral and central regulation of energy homoeostasis. It also plays an important role in innate immunity. However, the capability to more than double its original mass to cope with positive energy balance in obesity leads to many pathogenic changes. These changes arise within the adipose tissue as well as inducing secondary detrimental effects on other organs like muscle and liver, including chronic low-grade inflammation mediated by adipocytokines (adipokine inflammation). This inflammation is modulated by dietary factors and nutrients including glucose and lipids, as well as gut bacteria in the form of endotoxin or LPS. The aim of this current review is to consider the impact of nutrients such as glucose and lipids on inflammatory pathways, specifically within adipose tissue. Furthermore, how nutrients such as these can influence adipokine inflammation and consequently insulin resistance directly through their effects on secretion of adipocytokines (TNFα, IL6 and resistin) as well as indirectly through increases in endotoxin is discussed.
This article was published in J Endocrinol
and referenced in Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability