Author(s): Ioannidou E, Siempos II, Falagas ME
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Aerosolized antibiotics are a widely recognized treatment for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We sought to clarify their role in the treatment of non-CF patients with nosocomial pneumonia by performing a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared administration of antimicrobials via the respiratory tract (with or without concurrent usage of systemic antibiotics) with control treatment. METHODS: An extensive search of PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Current Contents and bibliographies from retrieved publications was made. RESULTS: Five RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Administration of antimicrobials via respiratory tract (either inhaled or endotracheally instilled) as opposed to control was associated with better treatment success in intention-to-treat [fixed effect model: odds ratio (OR) = 2.39, 95\% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-4.44; random effects model: OR = 2.75, 95\% CI 1.06-7.17] and in clinically evaluable patients (fixed effect model: OR = 3.14, 95\% CI 1.48-6.70; random effects model: OR = 3.07, 95\% CI 1.15-8.19). There were no statistically significant differences between therapeutic regimens regarding all-cause mortality (fixed effect model: OR = 0.84, 95\% CI 0.43-1.64; random effects model: OR = 0.71, 95\% CI 0.27-1.88), microbiological success (fixed effect model: OR = 2.06, 95\% CI 0.91-4.68; random effects model: OR = 2.23, 95\% CI 0.64-7.71) and toxicity (fixed effect model: OR = 0.34, 95\% CI 0.04-2.53; random effects model: OR = 0.36, 95\% CI 0.04-3.16). CONCLUSIONS: The limited available evidence seems not to preclude a benefit from the administration of antimicrobial agents via the respiratory tract for treating nosocomial pneumonia.
This article was published in J Antimicrob Chemother
and referenced in Journal of Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine