Author(s): Hashemzadeh M, Furukawa M, Goldsberry S, Ali Khoynezhad, Mohammad Reza Movahed
One of the major classes of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonists are thienopyridines. Thienopyridines compose a subcategory of antiplatelet medications, known as ADP receptor inhibitors, used commonly for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Thienopyridines, including ticlopidine, clopidogrel and prasugrel, are prodrugs administered orally that are further metabolized by hepatocytes to create active metabolites that irreversibly bind ADP receptors located on the platelet membrane. Thus, these selected drugs have an inhibitory effect for the duration of the platelet’s lifespan of 7–10 days. The goal of this manuscript is to review the currently available ADP receptor blockers with emphasis on chemical structure, mode of action and clinical use.