Author(s): Gyurkovits Z, Marti , Rnes L, Nmeth G, Pl A,
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence, risk factors and clinical presentations of neonatal adrenal haemorrhage (NAH) in uncomplicated, singleton and term deliveries. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 26,416 term neonates delivered between 2001 and 2013, and screened with abdominal ultrasonography. RESULTS: Of the 26,416 neonates, 74 (0.28\%) displayed NAH; the male/female ratio was 1.55:1. Vaginal delivery was significantly more frequent than caesarean section among them (71 versus 3; 95.9\% versus 4.1\%). Unilateral bleeding occurred on the right side in 36 (48.7\%), and on the left in 34 (45.9\%), without a significant difference; bilateral haematomas were found in four cases (5.4\%). The most common risk factors were macrosomia (16, 21.6\%) and fetal acidaemia (23, 31\%), while four (5.4\%) neonates exhibited pathological acidaemia. Clinical presentations included jaundice in 37 (50\%), anaemia in six (8.1\%) and an adrenal insufficiency in only one (1.3\%) case. In three cases, neuroblastoma was diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal delivery, macrosomia and fetal acidaemia are the most important risk factors for NAH. The adrenal glands on both sides were similarly involved. In the healthy neonates with NAH, the clinical presentations were mild, with spontaneous regression. Differentiation of NAH from tumours is of considerable importance.
This article was published in J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med
and referenced in Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System