Author(s): Rainey WE
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Abstract Aldosterone and cortisol are the major mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid produced by the human adrenal. Circulating levels of angiotensin II and potassium control the adrenal production of aldosterone, while the production of cortisol is controlled mainly by adrenocorticotropin. The capacity of the adrenal cortex to differentially produce aldosterone and cortisol relies to a large degree on the expression of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and 11beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1). CYP11B2 catalyzes the final steps in the biosynthesis of aldosterone and is expressed solely in the glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex, while CYP11B1 catalyzes the final steps in the biosynthesis of cortisol and is expressed in the fasciculata/reticularis. The zonal expression of these two isozymes appears to result from transcriptional regulation of the two genes. Herein, the recent progress in defining the cellular mechanisms that regulate transcription of these two isozymes and thus the capacity of the adrenal gland to differentially produce aldosterone and cortisol is discussed.
This article was published in Mol Cell Endocrinol
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy