Author(s): Chiou MS, Li HY
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Abstract A batch system was applied to study the adsorption of reactive dye (reactive red 189) from aqueous solutions by cross-linked chitosan beads. The ionic cross-linking reagent sodium tripolyphosphate was used to obtain more rigid chitosan beads. To stabilize chitosan in acid solutions, chemical cross-linking reagent epichlorohydrin (ECH), glutaraldehyde and ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether was used and ECH shows a higher adsorption capacity. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms at different particle sizes and isotherm constants were determined. The Langmuir model agrees very well with experimental data and its calculated maximum monolayer adsorption capacity has very large value of 1802-1840 (g/kg) at pH 3.0, 30 degrees C. The kinetics of the adsorption with respect to the initial dye concentration, temperature, pH, ionic strength, and wet/dry beads were investigated. The pseudo-first-order, second-order kinetic models and intraparticle diffusion model were used to describe the kinetic data and the rate constants were evaluated. The dynamical data fit well with the second-order kinetic model, except for the dry beads fitting better with the first-order model. The adsorption capacity increases largely with decreasing solution pH or with increasing initial dye concentration. Thermodynamic parameters such as change in free energy (deltaG(0)), enthalpy (deltaH(0)), entropy (deltaS(0)) and activation energy were also determined. The adsorption mechanism is shown to be the electrostatic interactions between the dye and chitosan beads. The desorption data shows that the removal percent of dye RR 189 from the cross-linked chitosan beads is 63\% in NaOH solutions at pH 10.0, 30 degrees C. The desorbed chitosan beads can be reused to adsorb the dye and to reach the same capacity as that before desorption. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
This article was published in Chemosphere
and referenced in Chemical Sciences Journal