alexa Advanced Byzantine cement based composites resisting earthquake stresses: the crushed brick lime mortars of Justinian's Hagia Sophia.


Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology

Author(s): MoropoulouA, BakolasA, ZendriE, CakmakAS

Abstract Share this page

Structural studies to determine the earthquake worthiness of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul have proved that the monument's static and dynamic behavior depends very strongly on the mechanical, chemical and microstructural properties of the mortars and bricks used for the masonry. Hence, the classification of the crushed brick/lime mortars under the category of advanced cement-based composites is concluded, explaining the fact that the monument still stands, as well as the very large static deformations which it has undergone, since such mortars have a very long curing period. According to the analysis of the dynamic data, the first three natural frequencies of the building were determined. These results show a decrease of approximately 5–10% in the natural frequencies, as the amplitude of the accelerations increases and returns to their initial values, due to the non-linear nature of the masonry. The above-mentioned behavior allows the structure to absorb energy without affecting irreversibly its material properties. The determination of the mortar properties indicated that they are of considerable mechanical strength and longevity. The dated mortar samples examined proved to be resistant to continuous stresses and strains due to the presence of the amorphous hydraulic formations (CSH), investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at the crushed-brick powder/binder interfaces and at a sufficient content in the binding matrix, as proved by TG-DTA, which allowed for greater energy absorption without initiations of fractures, let alone the transition of the gel to a higher order of formation. Furthermore, the interpretation of the amorphous nature of the hydraulic formations of the crushed brick/lime mortars is attempted by the experimental validation of real chemical interaction between lime and clay and the characterization of the fundamental structural units of the calcium silicate hydrates, produced by mass spectroscopy.

This article was published in Construction and Building Materials and referenced in Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version