alexa Advanced Byzantine cement based composites resisting earthquake stresses: the crushed brick lime mortars of Justinian's Hagia Sophia.
Engineering

Engineering

Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology

Author(s): MoropoulouA, BakolasA, ZendriE, CakmakAS

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Structural studies to determine the earthquake worthiness of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul have proved that the monument's static and dynamic behavior depends very strongly on the mechanical, chemical and microstructural properties of the mortars and bricks used for the masonry. Hence, the classification of the crushed brick/lime mortars under the category of advanced cement-based composites is concluded, explaining the fact that the monument still stands, as well as the very large static deformations which it has undergone, since such mortars have a very long curing period. According to the analysis of the dynamic data, the first three natural frequencies of the building were determined. These results show a decrease of approximately 5–10% in the natural frequencies, as the amplitude of the accelerations increases and returns to their initial values, due to the non-linear nature of the masonry. The above-mentioned behavior allows the structure to absorb energy without affecting irreversibly its material properties. The determination of the mortar properties indicated that they are of considerable mechanical strength and longevity. The dated mortar samples examined proved to be resistant to continuous stresses and strains due to the presence of the amorphous hydraulic formations (CSH), investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at the crushed-brick powder/binder interfaces and at a sufficient content in the binding matrix, as proved by TG-DTA, which allowed for greater energy absorption without initiations of fractures, let alone the transition of the gel to a higher order of formation. Furthermore, the interpretation of the amorphous nature of the hydraulic formations of the crushed brick/lime mortars is attempted by the experimental validation of real chemical interaction between lime and clay and the characterization of the fundamental structural units of the calcium silicate hydrates, produced by mass spectroscopy.

This article was published in Construction and Building Materials and referenced in Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology

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