Author(s): Yamagishi Si, Yonekura H, Yamamoto Y, Katsuno K, Sato F,
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Abstract This study was undertaken to determine whether and how advanced glycation end products (AGE), senescent macroproteins accumulated in various tissues under hyperglycemic states, cause angiogenesis, the principal vascular derangement in diabetic microangiopathy. We first prepared AGE-bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-AGE antiserum using AGE-RNase A. Then AGE-BSA was administered to human skin microvascular endothelial cells in culture, and their growth was examined. The AGE-BSA, but not nonglycated BSA, was found to induce a statistically significant increase in the number of viable endothelial cells as well as their synthesis of DNA. The increase in DNA synthesis by AGE-BSA was abolished by anti-AGE antibodies. AGE-BSA also stimulated the tube formation of endothelial cells on Matrigel. We obtained the following evidence that it is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that mainly mediates the angiogenic activities of AGE. (1) Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of poly(A)+ RNA from microvascular endothelial cells revealed that AGE-BSA up-regulated the levels of mRNAs for the secretory forms of VEGF in time- and dose-dependent manners, while endothelial cell expression of the genes encoding the two VEGF receptors, kinase insert domain-containing receptor and fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, remained unchanged by the AGE treatment. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that AGE-BSA did increase de novo synthesis of VEGF. (2) Monoclonal antibody against human VEGF completely neutralized both the AGE-induced DNA synthesis and tube formation of the endothelial cells. The results suggest that AGE can elicit angiogenesis through the induction of autocrine vascular VEGF, thereby playing an active part in the development and progression of diabetic microangiopathies.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology