Author(s): H Zhou, Daniel W Smith
The use of conventional water and wastewater treatment processes becomes increasingly challenged with the identification of more and more contaminants, rapid growth of population and industrial activities, and diminishing availability of water resources. Three emerging treatment technologies, including membrane filtration, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), and UV irradiation, hold great promise to provide alternatives for better protection of public health and the environment and thus are reviewed in this paper. The emphasis was placed on their basic principles, main applications, and new developments. Advantages and disadvantages of these technologies are compared to highlight their current limitations and future research needs. It can be concluded that, along with the growing knowledge and the advances in manufacturing industry, the applications of these technologies will be increased at an unprecedented scale. Key words: water treatment, wastewater treatment, membrane filtration, ozonation, advanced oxidation processes, UV irradiation.