Author(s): Pawluk MS, Campaa H, Gili JA, Comas B, Gimnez LG,
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Abstract INTRODUCTION: Different studies have related familiar and regional adverse social conditions to perinatal outcome (neonatal mortality, low birth weight and prematurity); however, few studies have studied the effect of poverty on congenital anomalies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the hazard ratio of 25 congenital anomalies and adverse social determinants as per the socioeconomic level of families and regions. POPULATION AND METHODS: Exploratory, case-control study using data from the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (Estudio Colaborativo Latinoamericano de Malformaciones Congenitas, ECLAMC). The sample consisted of 3786 live newborn infants with a single malformation and 13,344 controls selected among 546,129 births occurred in 39 hospitals from Argentina in the 1992-2001 period. Both direct and indirect (residence) risks (OR) were estimated, together with the interaction between the individual and residential socioeconomic levels for each of the 25 congenital anomalies. RESULTS: Cleft lip with/without cleft palate (OR= 1.43) and ventricular septal defect (OR= 1.38) showed a significantly higher risk in the lower socioeconomic level. Low socioeconomic levels were significantly associated with a higher frequency of parental sibship (blood relationship); native descent; maternal age younger than 19 years old; more than four pregnancies; a low number of antenatal care visits; and residence in deprived regions. CONCLUSION: Cleft lip with/without cleft palate and ventricular septal defects were significantly associated with a lower socioeconomic level. Lack of family planning and antenatal care; and exposure to environmental or teratogenic agents may account for these findings.
This article was published in Arch Argent Pediatr
and referenced in Primary Healthcare: Open Access