alexa Age-related differences in the performance, diffusion, and maintenance of stone handling, a behavioral tradition in Japanese macaques.

Journal of Primatology

Author(s): Leca JB, Gunst N, Huffman MA

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Identifying the sources of behavioral diversity in non-human primates is vital to understanding the evolution of human behavior. Stone handling (SH, hereafter) is a form of object play consisting of the manipulation of stones by performing various behavioral patterns. This behavior is socially transmitted from generation to generation in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), as a behavioral tradition. SH behavior in particular may reflect on the origin and evolution of stone-tool material culture. The objective of this study was to assess how group size, age structure, and age- and sex-related differences may account for the substantial intra- and inter-troop variations in SH reported in ten troops of Japanese macaques. Our results supported the hypothesis that patterns of variation in SH across troops reflected variability in group size and composition in age classes. We found that troop size was correlated with the proportion of troop members exhibiting SH simultaneously. The effect of troop size on the synchronized performance of SH may reveal the contagious nature of play. Our results suggest that the age structure of the group may affect the diffusion of SH. As predicted by the surplus energy hypothesis, a major functional hypothesis about play, intra-group variation in SH reflected more age- than sex-related differences. SH mainly occurred and was more frequent in younger than in older individuals, whereas no significant sex differences were found. SH episodes were shorter, more vigorous, and SH patterns were more diverse and less complex in immature than in mature individuals. The present findings reveal that age-related factors and group size may constrain the performance, diffusion, and maintenance of SH within a troop. Contrary to most other socially transmitted stone-tool using behaviors in non-human primates and early hominids, there is no optimal SH pattern. Provided some form of social learning, the non-adaptive nature of SH may allow particular SH pattern preferences to emerge at the group level. Our findings urge the use of an inter-populational comparative approach based on multivariate analyses when addressing the question of the evolution of behavioral traditions in primate and human populations. This article was published in J Hum Evol and referenced in Journal of Primatology

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords