alexa AGRICULTURE WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN: A REVIEW AND PERSPECTIVE
Business & Management

Business & Management

Journal of Global Economics

Author(s): Asif M Bhatti, Pongsak Suttinon, Seigo Nasu

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It is universal truth that meager resources compel for their better utilization and preservation. Most of developing countries lack in renewable fresh water resources. In Pakistan, it is more importance than ordinary due to the agrarian nature of its economy. Per capita water availability has decreased from 5260 m3 in 1951 to 1050 m3 in 2008. The share of agriculture sector in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Pakistan is about 24% and about 60% of the population depends on agriculture and allied industries for their bread and butter. Since water is the major input in agriculture, the agricultural productivity and its sustainability depend on the timely and adequate availability of water. In Pakistan, agriculture is the major consumer of water and utilizing more than 95% of country's water resources. About 80% of the cropped area is irrigated, and 90% of the agricultural output comes from irrigated land. Climatic change and global warming is also effecting the availability of water at critical times during the crop growth and the inadequate physical and institutional infrastructure is not sufficient to cope with its adverse impacts. The water demand varies in both space and time, however, the water supply is at the best fixed and its availability is at the mercy of nature. The present paper comprehensively describe the present situation of irrigated water, crop yield, current agriculture practices, agriculture vs. GDP and impact of climatic change on agriculture. Water demand management model for agriculture sector was developed and future water and food demand was forecasted under different environmental scenarios. Notion such as "soft path" is needed to be adopted to cope with food and fiber requirement of more than 200 million people by the year 2025. In order to meet the water demand for environment, economic and people's life, there is scope for significant improvement in the efficiency of water utilization, which if achieved should enhance the overall sustainability.

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This article was published in Society for Social Management Systems and referenced in Journal of Global Economics

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